"In aqueous solutions, it is possible for PBN to decompose to benzaldehyde and N-tert-butyl hydroxylamine (NtBHA) (39) thru hydrolysis (figure 17), which is catalyzed by the ppresentce of Fe+++ ions(53). NtBHA can then be further oxidized into tert-butyl hydronitrile, which in tern can then be further oxidized into an NO-donor(52). It is possible for PBN to decompose in storage over time (39) and especially comemercially attained batches seems to be prone to this phenomenon (77). This is rumored to enhance the efficacy of PBN(13) The resulting substance NtBHA, has been shown to delay the senescence of cultured lung fibroblasts (13) and seerve as an antioxidant that reverses age-related changes in mitochondria in rats (14). If there is a corresponding decomposiiton of S-PBN, it might explain why a non-pepetrating substances offers robust neuroprotection. Unfortunately, data on whether or not S-PBN or its double sulfonated analog NXY-059 shares this feature with PBN is not available, but worth studying. According to AstraZeneca representatives there is no evidence of any in vivo decomposition of S-PBN or NXY-059 (personal communication). (emphasis-added)"